Biocatalytic Synthesis of Angiotensinâ€“converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor Drug Precursors Using Membrane Bioreactor: A Review
AbstractOver the past decade, the production of angiotensinâ€“converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. The most significant clinical application of ACE inhibitors is in the management of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, particularly congestive heart failure (CHF). A number of chemical methods have been reported thus far for the synthesis of ACE inhibitor precursors. However, chemical methods generally suffer from process complexity, high cost, and environmental pollution. On the other hand, enantiomerically pure ACE inhibitor drug precursors can be obtained elegantly and efficiently by employing biocatalytic methods, where it appears to be the most attractive process in terms of potential industrial applications and green chemistry. In the recent past, membranes are expeditiously used in the enzymeâ€“catalyzed synthesis of optically active pharmaceutical compounds on laboratory and industrial scales, being incorporated in membrane bioreactor system. This technique can be applied for the repeated use of the enzymes in the synthesis via retention or immobilization, especially when dealing with costly biocatalysts. Herein we review the enzymatic synthesis of vital ACE inhibitor drug precursors as potentially useful intermediates in the synthesis of pharmaceutical products, in environmentally friendly condition, using membrane bioreactor for biotransformation.
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