Current Advances in Membranes for Osmotic Power Generation: A Review
Keywords:Osmotic power, pressure retarded osmosis, thin film composite membrane, recent trends in membrane fabrication and modification
With the target of zero waste policy and renewable energy harvesting, the osmotic power generation by pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) from salinity gradient is an exciting and yet challenging problem for water management technologies to achieve water and energy sustainability. In recent years, the production of high-performance PRO membranes has earned increased concern, although many controversies are surrounding its environmental impact and practicality. Therefore, a detailed and up-to-date evaluation of key advances in PRO membrane engineering applications made in recent years is discussed in this review. Moreover, it is aimed to provide updated insight on the significant developments in advanced fabricating and modifying techniques of the latest PRO membranes. The increased performance using various configurations and materials, which are also analysed in-depth based on the point of view of design rationales. Furthermore, the problem faced in membrane development is addressed with suggested solutions are explored. Lastly, the potential outlook of PRO membrane implications in the practical scenario are also mentioned.
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