Current Advances in Membranes for Osmotic Power Generation: A Review


  • Zhen Shen Liew aCivil and Environmental Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia. bCentre for Urban Resource Sustainability, Institute of Self‑Sustainable Building, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia
  • Nik Abdul Hadi Md Nordin bCentre for Urban Resource Sustainability, Institute of Self‑Sustainable Building, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia. cChemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610, Perak, Malaysia
  • Soon-Onn Lai dLee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Sungai Long, Bandar Sungai Long, 43300 Kajang, Malaysia
  • Jun Ma State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090, China
  • Yeek-Chia Ho Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS



Osmotic power, pressure retarded osmosis, thin film composite membrane, recent trends in membrane fabrication and modification


With the target of zero waste policy and renewable energy harvesting, the osmotic power generation by pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) from salinity gradient is an exciting and yet challenging problem for water management technologies to achieve water and energy sustainability. In recent years, the production of high-performance PRO membranes has earned increased concern, although many controversies are surrounding its environmental impact and practicality. Therefore, a detailed and up-to-date evaluation of key advances in PRO membrane engineering applications made in recent years is discussed in this review. Moreover, it is aimed to provide updated insight on the significant developments in advanced fabricating and modifying techniques of the latest PRO membranes. The increased performance using various configurations and materials, which are also analysed in-depth based on the point of view of design rationales. Furthermore, the problem faced in membrane development is addressed with suggested solutions are explored. Lastly, the potential outlook of PRO membrane implications in the practical scenario are also mentioned.


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